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GANGA - The Mother Goddess



Ganga River Basin

The Ganga River Basin Of India - The thick line is the Water Divide


"The Ganges, above all is the river of India, which has held India's heart captive and drawn uncounted millions to her banks since the dawn of history. The story of the Ganges, from her source to the sea, from old times to new, is the story of India's civilization and culture, of the rise and fall of empires, of great and proud cities, of adventures of man"

- Jawhar Lal Nehru (Discovery Of India)


The Ganges Basin with its fertile soil is instrumental to the agricultural economies of India and Bangladesh.The river provides spiritual sustenance to 1 billion Hindus, who regard it as sacred. And it provides physical sustenance to hundreds of millions of people who live in its watershed.


The river passes through India's most populous state, its one of the fast upcoming states (Bihar) , its holiest city and its cultural capital, Calcutta. The Ganges and its tributaries provide a perennial source of irrigation to a large area. Chief crops cultivated in the area include rice, sugarcane, lentils, oil seeds, potatoes, and wheat. Along the banks of the river, the presence of swamps and lakes provide a rich growing area for crops such as legumes, chillies, mustard, sesame, sugarcane, and jute.


There are also many fishing opportunities to many along the river, though it remains highly polluted. Tourism is another related activity. Three towns holy to Hinduism – Haridwar, Allahabad, and Varanasi – attract thousands of pilgrims to its waters. Thousands of Hindu pilgrims arrive at these three towns to take a dip in the Ganges, which is believed to cleanse oneself of sins and help attain salvation. The rapids of the Ganges also are popular for river rafting, attracting hundreds of adventure seekers in the summer months.



About Ganaga River and its Tributaries

The Ganga is the most important river of India both from the point of view of its basin and cultural significance. It rises in the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh (3,900 m) in the Uttarkashi district of Uttaranchal. Here, it is known as the Bhagirathi. It cuts through the Central and the Lesser Himalayas in narrow gorges. At Devprayag, the Bhagirathi meets the Alaknanda; hereafter, it is known as the Ganga. The Alaknanda has its source in the Satopanth glacier above Badrinath.

The Alaknanda consists of the Dhauli and the Vishnu Ganga which meet at Joshimath or Vishnu Prayag. The other tributaries of Alaknanda such as the Pindar join it at Karna Prayag while Mandakini or Kali Ganga meets it at Rudra Prayag. The Ganga enters the plains at Haridwar. From here, it flows first to the south, then to the south-east and east before splitting into two distributaries, namely the Bhagirathi and the Hugli. The river has a length of 2,525 km. It is shared by Uttaranchal (110 km) and Uttar Pradesh (1,450 km), Bihar (445 km) and West Bengal (520 km). The Ganga basin covers about 8.6 lakh sq. km area in India alone.

The Ganga river system is the largest in India having a number of perennial and non-perennial rivers originating in the Himalayas in the north and the Peninsula in the south, respectively. The Son is its major right bank tributary. The important left bank tributaries are the Ramganga, the Gomati, the Ghaghara, the Gandak, the Kosi and the Mahanada. The river finally discharges itself into the Bay of Bengal near the Sagar Island.

The Yamuna, the western most and the longest tributary of the Ganga, has its source in the Yamunotri glacier on the western slopes of Banderpunch range (6,316 km). It joins the Ganga at Prayag (Allahabad). It is joined by the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and the Ken on its right bank which originates from the Peninsular plateau while the Hindan, the Rind, the Sengar, the Varuna, etc. join it on its left bank. Much of its water feeds the western and eastern Yamuna and the Agra canals for irrigation purposes.The Chambal rises near Mhow in the Malwa plateau of Madhya Pradesh and flows northwards through a gorge up wards of Kota in Rajasthan, where the Gandhisagar dam has been constructed. From Kota, it traverses down to Bundi, Sawai Madhopur and Dholpur, and finally joins the Yamuna. The Chambal is famous for its badland topography called the Chambal ravines.

The Gandak comprises two streams, namely Kaligandak and Trishulganga. It rises in the Nepal Himalayas between the Dhaulagiri and Mount Everest and drains the central part of Nepal. It enters the Ganga plain in Champaran district of Bihar and joins the Ganga at Sonpur near Patna.

The Ghaghara originates in the glaciers of Mapchachungo. After collecting the waters of its tributaries – Tila, Seti and Beri, it comes out of the mountain, cutting a deep gorge at Shishapani. The river Sarda (Kali or Kali Ganga) joins it in the plain before it finally meets the Ganga at Chhapra.

The Kosi is an antecedent river with its source to the north of Mount Everest in Tibet, where its main stream Arun rises. After crossing the Central Himalayas in Nepal, it is joined by the Son Kosi from the West and the Tamur Kosi from the east. It forms Sapt Kosi after uniting with the river Arun.

The Ramganga is comparatively a small river rising in the Garhwal hills near Gairsain. It changes its course to the southwest direction after crossing the Shiwalik and enters into the plains of Uttar Pradesh near Najibabad. Finally, it joins the Ganga near Kannauj.

The Damodar occupies the eastern margins of the Chotanagpur Plateau where it flows through a rift valley and finally joins the Hugli. The Barakar is its main tributary. Once known as the ‘sorrow of Bengal’, the Damodar has been now tamed by the Damodar Valley corporation, a multipurpose project. The Sarda or Saryu river rises in the Milan glacier in the Nepal Himalayas where it is known as the Goriganga. Along the Indo-Nepal border, it is called Kali or Chauk, where it joins the Ghaghara.

The Mahananda is another important tributary of the Ganga rising in the Darjiling hills. It joins the Ganga as its last left bank tributary in West Bengal. The Son is a large south bank tributary of the Ganga, originating in the Amarkantak plateau. After forming a series of waterfalls at the edge of the plateau, it reaches Arrah, west of Patna, to join the Ganga.

Click Here to Know more about the Holy Ganga - it's mythical Purifying power and unabated pollution killing it's power...

Documentary - Shrinking Ganga (Hindi)

The holiest Indian river, Ganga is drying up slowly but surely as the Gangotri glacier melts, Ganga and its tributaries are rapidly shrinking. The situation is further aggravated by the construction of dams along the Bhagirathi.


Click Here For Watching a Documentary "Mother Ganga" about the religious significance of the river.

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20 Apr 2013, 13:14
Dear friends
Nice to know about this article.Please write if you would like to add it to our portal to help us bringing things at a platform.
Ancient GeoArchaeologist
30 Jan 2013, 17:58
Weight of Himalayan and Tibetan plate is balanced by upward thrust by Indian continental plate and gravitation of the Earth. At certain stage this may be disturbed with further push of Himalaya. And huge tectonic activity will start again with heat and also heat will affect the glaciers on Himalaya and floods of Himalayan river plains.

Kutch has been under flood before by such activity along with sea level rise. Kutch has been under water before (between KT time and 55 million years of time – see the sea creatures’ fossil study report of the time of KUTCH)

Unofficial records say land of Kutch has gone underwater 7 times and come out of sea. And so we do find cretaceous wood fossils in lower levels and younger marine fossil layers in upper layers. (Proofs of Recording are stored in Library records)

Also micro fossils of Kutch will put further lights on that matter. so palaeontologist working on the subjects of Microfossils of Kutch and Bryozoans and Brachiopods may put their work in support of that. Marine protozoans show up in the fossil record in the early part of the Ordovician Period, about 470 million years ago. Fossil bryozoans are common in the Permian rocks.

The Eocene epoch is usually broken into Early and Late, or - more usually - Early, Middle, and Late subdivisions. The corresponding rocks are referred to as Lower, Middle, and Upper Eocene. The Faunal stages from youngest to oldest are:

The Ypresian and occasionally the Lutetian constitute the Lower, the Priabonian and sometimes the Bartonian the Upper subsection; alternatively, the Lutetian and Bartonian are united as the Middle Eocene.

Marking the start of the Eocene, Earth heated up in one of the most rapid (in geologic terms) and extreme global warming events recorded in geologic history, called the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or IETM). This was an episode of rapid and intense warming (up to 7 °C at high latitudes) that lasted less than 100,000 years . The Thermal Maximum provoked a sharp extinction event that distinguishes Eocene fauna from the ecosystems of the Paleocene.
The Eocene global climate was perhaps the most homogeneous of the Cenozoic; the temperature gradient from equator to pole was only half that of today's, and deep ocean currents were exceptionally warm. The polar regions were much warmer than today, perhaps as mild as the modern-day Pacific Northwest; temperate forests extended right to the poles, while rainy tropical climates extended as far north as 45°. The difference was greatest in the temperate latitudes; the climate in the tropics however, was probably similar to today's.
Climates remained warm through the rest of the Eocene, although slow global cooling triggered by the Azolla event, which eventually led to the Pleistocene glaciations, started as ocean currents around Antarctica formed.
During the Eocene, the continents continued to drift toward their present positions.
At the beginning of the period, Australia and Antarctica remained connected, and warm equatorial currents mixed with colder Antarctic waters, distributing the heat around the planet and keeping global temperatures high. But when Australia split from the southern continent around 45 mya, the warm equatorial currents were deflected away from Antarctica, and an isolated cold water channel developed between the two continents. The Antarctic region cooled down, and the ocean surrounding Antarctica began to freeze, sending cold water and icefloes north, reinforcing the cooling.
The northern supercontinent of Laurasia began to break up, as Europe, Greenland and North America drifted apart.
In western North America, mountain building started in the Eocene, and huge lakes formed in the high flat basins among uplifts, resulting in the deposition of the Green River Formation lagerstätte.
In Europe, the Tethys Sea finally vanished, while the uplift of the Alps isolated its final remnant, the Mediterranean, and created another shallow sea with island archipelagos to the north. Though the North Atlantic was opening, a land connection appears to have remained between North America and Europe since the faunas of the two regions are very similar.
India continued its journey away from Africa and began its collision with Asia, folding the Himalayas into existence.
It is hypothesized that the Eocene hothouse world was caused by runaway global warming from released methane clathrates deep in the oceans. The clathrates were buried beneath mud that was disturbed as the oceans warmed. Methane (CH4) has ten to twenty times the greenhouse gas effect of carbon dioxide (CO2)

Geological Time scales attached
Mesozoic Permian in Paleozoic period
Paleozoic Era 542 - 251 million years ago and Key events in the Paleozoic periods
The Mesozoic Era (248 - 65 million years ago) Ages of the Mesozoic Era
Triassic Period
248 - 206 mya
First dinosaurs and mammals
Jurassic Period
206-144 mya
Many dinosaurs and the first birds
Cretaceous Period
144-65 mya
First flowering plants, the height of the dinosaurs. Ends in huge extinction.

Different time level Marine fossils in Kutch and LAND vegetation fossil in the in-between periods

Early carboniferous Lycopsid fossil has been sited in the layers of underneath Jurassic ammonite layers (More detailed information will be sent on request)
Early Devonian vegetative fossils has been spotted in deeper layers of black hills underneath layers of marine fossil layers in the top.
Similarly North Khadir Hills has many giant Lycopsid tree trunks and younger marine fossils in Upper layers of Hills
Merula Spendis generally not found in Kutch but at one place it has been seen in Deep under layers of Tapakeshwari hills waterfall area during visit with Dr SHRIGARPURE in 2007 also samples of trilobites have been collected from Nakhtrana river.
And surprisingly fossils of Stromatolites (Strombolites) have been spotted in Kutch and Live stromatolites are under water coral rifts in the bay of kutch.
Though geologist all over the world does visit to research in Kutch but Geological study has not been given such a priority in KUTCH. Kutch do have fossilised strombolites in Gangeshwar dome area. when it was under shallow sea water it has LIVING fossils at that time but later with the uplift of the area from the sea bed. those fossils are plenty on the Gangeshwar hill area.
Though Australians and Americans geologist has done more to study similar fossils in PERTH of AUSTRALIA. none of geologist has given the time to the strombolites foosils of Gangeshwar dome of KUTCH. similarly Bay of Kutch is full of misteries. Diving in bay of kutch reveals a beutiful coral seabed and planty of Living STROMATOLITES which are original organisms of the time of the evolution of life on the Earth. picture of the BAY of kutch and Perth Australlia wil; be sent on email request along with gangeshwar dome strombolites fossils in KUTCH

1) Specimens of wood fossils (cretaceous) in the MARINE fossil site of Jurassic region.
2) Hundreds foot prints of Jurassic bird’s (video captures and documented)
Himalaya is believed to be between 60/70 million years old (simultaneous process of KT period time) so destruction of life and dinosaurs on earth occurred after KT was not linked to ONLY KT phenomenon but also simultaneous process of KT and creation of HUGE tectonics and creation of Himalaya range. HIMALAYAN and slowly raised up as Indian continental plate pushed under the edge of the Asian continental plate and lifting the Himalaya and Tibetan high lands. (Very Long time 8.64 Mn years left, till next destruction of Life on the Earth 64.6 mn-55.733116 Mn)
Saraswati, Originating from Himalayan SHIVALIK range area, draining to PUSHKAR to RANN OF KUTCH, though the course of the river change time to time with seismic activity. And has many tributaries (Gaggar Hakar- SARKARA etc). One of the tributary was MITHI from SINDH area. Other was KHARI from RAJASTHAN desert area and even SARASWATI of Sidhdhhpur PATAN was joining the main river drainage. RANN OF KUTCH is part of those river delta and sediments are proofs of the time scale.

1. Shivalik Hills: altitude varying between 900 to 2300 meters. These hills are the source of the rivers like Saraswati, Ghaggar, Tangri and Markanda. Parts of Panchkula, Ambala and Yamunanagar districts.
2. Ghaggar Yamuna Plain: Divided in 2 parts - the higher one is called 'Bangar' and the lower 'Khadar'. This alluvium plain is made up of sand, clay, silt and hard calcareous balls like gravel known locally as kankar.
3. Semi-desert sandy plain: This area includes the districts of Sirsa and parts of Hissar, Mahendergarh, Fatehbad, Bhiwani and shares border with Rajasthan.
4. Aravali hills: This is a dry irregular hilly area.
Many theories and researches have been put forward to explain HIMALAYA and periods but all looks
contradicting as the dating process are not relevant (as long periods) or geological samples and fossils are of
different stage formations.
And hardly any one has calculated in real Maths and there are some explanations in Vedic science and Vedic
Maths to link these in scientific geological time scales. I put forward some of such calculative maths from Vedic
sources and its relation to Geological time scales. (A comparative study)

Himalaya was formed during this present Manvantar - seventh Manvantara - of Vaivasvata Manu.
If the KT period has Passed 64.8Mn years (65 Mn), that is the Likely time event The Himalaya was created by collision of the Indo-Eurasian Plates.
But Ganga was not existing, After a Long period of lack of Sun heat, cloudy dusty atmosphere Earth went to a deep freezing and after LONG LONG freezing periods vast glaciations were formed in whole of the

Himalayan uplifting region. Kailash was the Higher than Everest (Much younger than Kailash and Everest/ UMOLANGAM may not be existing at that time). Later when Glaciers get warmer from underground heat started to Move and melt which might have destroyed major part of the Earth, Burt the destruction was Prevented by Shiva JATA – Kailash , Mansarowar. And safe GANGA


Shiva was at Kailsh, and Huge lakes of Glaciation were formed, BHAGIRATH a (Par Pautra) great
Granson of SAGAR made the river Ganga come to Earth. And took many generations before he succeeded to do so. The following figures may put some light on it. That was the Time 13 th SATYUGA , Before last 12 MAHAYUGAS.

Generally Puran have not mentioned the days (Monday - Sunday) of the occasions. But DEVIBHAGVAT has one occasion said as follows. (read by Mahant Shree KISHORDASJI @ BHUJ KABIRMANDIR) GANGAJI AVTARAN was the day of MANGALWAR (Tuesday), JYESH SUD DASHAM , HAST NAKSHTRA. Though the Translations explains it need to be verified By original Sanskrit Shlock’s texts.

1KT = 15 Maha Yugas (15 x 4.32) =684.8 Mn years
Ganga Avtaran time is about before 12 MahaYugas 12x4.32 Mn + SatYuga +TretaYuga+Dwapar+present KaliYug
= 51.84 Mn + 1728000 + 1296000 + 864000 + 5116 = Total Years =55733116= 55.733116 Mn

Too understand these calculations we need to look at Basic Vedic calculations and Comparing Difference of understanding life cycle of sun and life on the Earth by Scientific and Vedic aspects.

OUR SUN'S LIFE = 1 KALP DAY (4320000000 YEARS) + 1 KALP NIGHT (4320000000 YEARS)
=8640000000 years =8.64 Bn years.
04 Dec 2012, 11:18
copy paste of geography ncert 12
23 Dec 2011, 10:02
Are you trying to take a swipe at Bihar by calling it the most lawless state??
Is this what you to tend to teach students?
I stopped reading your article after you used the above phrase.
People like you who pretend to be educated ones and talk in rubbish language are shame for a nation.
Is this what you are gonna teach to your children as well? haan?
Read about the most lawless state, its history and meet people from there.
You will be glad you met them.
Your first president was from the most lawless state.
And right now,the CM of the most lawless state is the best CM.
So before u write any blog again wearing your tinted would be better if you dont write.
And I am not even from Bihar.
R Banerjee
03 Jan 2011, 09:42
Though this article is narrated in brief and comprehensive manner but their is shortage of material.Please enhance this article with more information that may become useful for the students.